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A. Economic
Imperialism at home and abroad – In one generation
Africa – direct possession (1902: only Liberia, founded by former American slaves remains independent)
Asia and Near East: economic and diplomatic pressure
Economic concessions and extra-territorial privileges: Ottoman Empire – most vulnerable; China – most vulnerable; Japan – modernizing rapidly; India – firmly in British hands;
Importance to Europe: keeps fat on European economy; colonial rule a reproach to democracy; encouraged feelings of national and racial superiority;
“Pan” movements – a form of imperialism
Technology and science: materialism
B. Social
Human welfare: serfdom gone (except in Russia); surgery and anesthetics perfected; life span longer; Victorian middle class morality in decline; spread of literacy.
Peace movements: “pipe dream of peace”.
Aristocratic remainders.
Neglect of the proletariat.
C. Intellectual
1. European cultural heritage
2. Ideologies of progress:
conservatism – delaying action not progress (aristocracy)
liberalism – freedom, law, representative government (upper middle class)
radicalism – remove class distinctions, anti-clerical (lower middle class)
socialism – collectivist doctrine (city workers)
new left – syndicalism
D. Political
1. the nation-state: language and race
2. parliamentary government
3. parties:
tied to class and ideology
lack of responsibility
too many of them
4. Differing forms
separation of powers only in the USA
king or president a figurehead in Britain and France
search for majorities in parliament
Britain: the cabinet held the whip
France and Italy: parliament held the whip
5. Extension of the suffrage
6. Exceptions to democratization
Germany: only has external form of it, the Reichstag is a “debating chamber”
Austria-Hungary: maintaining monarchy in polyglot confusion
Russia: a struggle between Duma and Ministry
E. Military
1. popular militarism
Boer War
naval building race: Admiral Tirpitz – risk theory
Three-year army law: France 1913
Tripoli campaign in Italy, 1911
2. Comparative figures on army increase, 1870-1914:
1870 1914
Russia 700,000 1,300,000
France 380,000 846,000
Germany 403,000 812,000
Austria-Hungary 247,000 424,000
Britain 302,000 381,000
Italy 334,000 305,000
Japan 70,000 250,000
U.S.A. 37,000 98,000
3. military expenditure
Germany and Russia had the largest budgets in 1914
Britain and Germany spent most per capita:
Germany $8.52
Britain $8.53
U.S.A. $0.32
F. Diplomatic
1. Alliance System
1870 – 1890: Bismarck in control
1890 – 1907: balance against Germany
2. Testing the system
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5
First Morocco Crisis, 1905-6
Bosnian Annexation Crisis, 1908
Second Morocco Crisis, 1911
Haldane Mission, 1912
3. Tensions in the Balkans
Hapsburg Empire in turmoil
South Slav Problem
First Balkan War, 1912-13
Second Balkan War, 1913
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